Organic Chemistry

The Legend lab in St. Paul, MN, features a full-service organic chemistry department with a wide range of analytical capabilities. Contact us for additional information or call at (651) 642-1150.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic compounds that vaporize at normal temperature and pressure. VOCs are released into the air by everyday products and during common manufacturing processes. Common household sources include: paints; paint strippers; aerosol sprays; wood preservatives; cleaning products; and disinfectants.

Analytical methods for liquids and solids use methanol preparations and purge and trap GC-PID/FID or GC/MS systems. Air samples use alternative cryogenic sample introduction to GC/MS systems.

LEGEND uses EPA methods 624, 8260B, and TO-15 for VOC analysis.

Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs)

Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are organic compounds frequently found in liquids, soil, and other materials. Common types of SVOCs include: polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); chlorinated hydrocarbons; pesticides; phthalate esters; aldehydes; ethers; ketones; phenols; and nitrophenols.

Analytical methods generally use dichloromethane (methylene chloride) preparations and GC/MS systems.

LEGEND uses EPA methods 625 and 8270D for SVOC analysis.

Non-Volatile Organic Compounds

Common non-volatile organic compounds include: acrylamide; nonyl phenol ethoxylates (NPEs); per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS); and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC or polyDDA). Non-volatile organic contaminants were used for many industrial applications, such as: non-stick surface coatings for cookware (PFAS); fire-fighting foam (PFAS); fracking (acrylamide/polyDADMAC); and surfactants (NPEs).

Preparation methods for liquids and solids use solid-phase extraction (SPE) and dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) with direct injection. Analytical methods use UPLC-TOF (Time of Flight MS) and UPLC-TQD, allowing for detection levels ranging from low ppm to high ppt.

Pesticides

Pesticides are substances used to control pests. Common pesticides include: herbicides (plants); insecticides (insects); fungicides (molds/mildews); and disinfectants (bacteria/viruses).

Preparation methods for liquids and solids use solid-phase extraction (SPE), automated solvent extraction (ASE), and liquid-liquid extraction. Analytical methods use GC-ECD, GC/MS, UPLC-TOF (Time of Flight MS), and UPLC-TQD.

1,4-Dioxane Analysis

1,4-Dioxane is a synthetic chemical used as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents. The chemical moves through water easily and does not readily biodegrade. As a result, it has been detected in groundwater throughout the United States.

The analytical method uses solid-phase extraction via GC-HRMS.

LEGEND uses a modified EPA method 522 for 1,4-Dioxane analysis; our current limit of detection is 0.10 µg/L.

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